how did benito mussolini attempt to increase italy’s power? This is a topic that many people are looking for. militaria-agent.com is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, militaria-agent.com would like to introduce to you Ten Minute History – Mussolini and Fascist Italy (Short Documentary). Following along are instructions in the video below:
15. And italy has just joined the first world war. It sided with the on on tom powers.
Despite previously having made a defensive pact with the central powers. Because was austria hungary that invaded serbia in 1914 that meant that it wasnt a defensive war and thus. Italy could sit it out both sides had tried to convince italy to join them.
And it was the aunt on who won out in the end when italy signed the treaty of london. Which promised them all of this territory from austria. Hungary as well as a mountain of cash or made the 23rd italy declared war on the austro hungarian empire and italy was all in italy.
Didnt exactly perform very well during the war. But fortunately their main opponent was austria hungary. Who also didnt perform very well in late 1917 came italys greatest defeat during the war.
The battle of caporetto. This saw. The central powers pushed this far into italy thus threatening venice and also seeing 300000 italian casualties in order to raise morale.
The liberal government promised soldiers loads of things like the vote and free land. Anyway. Austro hungarian successes in the war.
Just like in everything. Else. Didnt last.
In november 1918. The battle of vittorio veneto began which saw the collapse of the austro hungarian army in the end of the war in the italian front a week after this victory. The first world war was over and italy was free to celebrate and gain.
The lands. The allies had promised them or at least. Theyd hoped during the paris peace conference.
The italians demanded what they had been promised. Plus a little bit more the ally said no and instead gave these ares to italy in the rest of the promised territories to the new kingdom of yugoslavia. Many italians felt that this was a gross betrayal by the rest of the on tante and this became known as the vittorio mutilator the mutilated victory.
The displeasure at the post war settlement came to a head. When gabriele d.annunzio led a group of armed italian nationalists of the city of the umay and occupied it they wanted italy to annex it.
But the government refused as such it was declared to be a free state. But after the italian navy blockaded. The city dannunzio surrendered to make matters worse the post war economy was in ruins and since all of the soldiers had been demobilized and many of the wartime factories were closed unemployment skyrocketed also the promise of land to the soldiers wasnt honored.
But they did get the vote all of this disappointment surrounding the outcome of the war combined with the economic downturn meant that people became much more extreme in their demands. This led to whats known as the red biennium. Which saw two years of increased support for socialist parties greater industrial action.
Some of which was quite violent and even calls for a revolution like that in russia. These more radical socialists were quite frightening to many italians and to prevent them from gaining power. Some turn to a new group.
The fascists led by a certain benito mussolini mussolini had previously himself been a socialist. But he was kicked out of the party when he supported italian entry into world war one after the war. Many unemployed veterans during the blackshirts.
A fascist militia went up and down the country making life pretty miserable for any and all socialist. They could find mussolini wasnt in complete control of the blackshirts. Though.
Regional leaders like at a low bow bow had immense sway. But did largely accept mussolinis leadership. The current prime minister of italy at this point was a man could giovanni g.
Alit ii. Who was a conservative and disliked the growing power of the socialists but also was concerned about the fascists. He decided to call a new election to italys parliament.
The house of deputies. Where he would form a broad coalition. Which would include mussolini and his fascists.
The idea was that given mussolini. A legitimate position in government would make him act in a more respectable manner and kill off the fascist movement. The idea was a bad one g le t.
Actually lost seats during this election and the socialists gained them sort of some of the seats were gained by the newly formed communist party created by a certain antonio gramsci as a result passing legislation was much more difficult and the fascists now had friends in high places in late 1921. The fascists decided to become a formal political party. The national fascist party.
The pmf mussolini wanted to enter government via peaceful means. But the partys members wanted him to take power now on october. The 28th 1922.
The fascists conducted their infamous march on rome. Where by tens of thousands of blackshirts marched on rome mussolini wasnt there himself. Though he was in milan ready to flee to switzerland.
If it all went wrong. Victor emmanuel. The 3rd was asked to sign an order allowing the army to open fire and the black shares the king for reasons unknown did not and the next day.
He made mussolini. The prime minister so the proportional representation system used in italian elections. Meant.
The no party ever won a majority mussolini along with many others sought to change this than a man could giacomo a turbo. Put forward a law known as the ature bo law. Which meant that the winning party in any future.
Elections would get a clear majority of seats this law was supported by most parties for two reasons. The first was that everyone hated the current electoral system. Since he made weak governments the second and arguably main reason they supported the law was the armed black shirts.
Who were in the room with them another election was held in 1924 with mussolini and the fascist party standing for the first time at the head of a right wing listen they won about 65 of the vote and theres a lot of debate as to how clean the elections were there were certainly violence against mussolinis opponents. But he was also very popular many italians were hoping he would fix the countrys problems. The head of the socialist opposition giacomo matteotti spoke out against mussolinis victory saying.
It was tainted by the violence inflicted by his followers. Shortly after this matt ert was kidnapped and murdered by fascist black chairs. The murder of maserati forced.
Many of mussolinis coalition partners to abandon him he looked like his grip on power was slipping the fascist membership wanted mussolini to be more extreme and hostile to his coalition partners. Whereas mussolini didnt want to lose more support in the chamber of deputies. Which was becoming more and more difficult since he was directly implicated amati of his murder as such she took a major risk on january.
The 3rd 1925 mussolini walked into the chamber of deputies and dared anyone to remove him. Nobody did this is seen as the end of liberal italy in the beginnings of fascist italy. But the difference wasnt immediate and in many ways.
There was little difference at all conservatives and liberals were still being appointed to positions of authority. That said mussolini did become a dictator in late 1925. He went from being the prime minister of italy to being the head of the government.
Although hes better known by his other title in luce. The leader. The next year after a few assassination attempts he banned all opposition parties had gramsci arrested and enacted.
Strict press censorship. The new regime began a phase propaganda. Campaign and sought to present mussolini as an unassailable leader.
In the same vein. As the old roman emperors mussolinis first goal was to fix. Italys ailing economy he sought to increase the levels of industrialization across italy.
Which were far behind the other great powers mussolini also sought to win several economic battles to secure italys position as a leading nation. The two most important being the battle for grain in the battle for the lira. The battle for grain was designed to make italy self sufficient in grain production.
The battle for the lira was meant to make the lira more valuable as an international currency. Which would make importing certain resources of which italy lacked more feasible. Mussolini also made an agreement with pope pius xi to settle the roman question.
The pope didnt recognize italian sovereignty over him and mussolini cut him a deal well give you some money youll stop openly criticizing fascism and the vatican will gain its independence. They agreed and in 1929. The vatican city became the worlds smallest independent country furthermore mussolinis government encouraged people to take up sports and also urge women to have more children all of the aforementioned mangez largely didnt work a make life worse for many italians.
But it was seen as their duty to endure for the sake of italy their endurance would ideally see italy recapture its old glory from the days of the roman empire mussolini had promised the italian people that he would rebuild the roman empire for them. Which is why he had ambitions on all of these countries to the north lay ostry. Who everyone knew that germany under a certain adolf hitler wanted to annex in 1935.
Mussolini signed a treaty with france and britain known as the stresser from which guaranteed austrian independence. You see mo cellini. Didnt really like the nazi regime.
In germany and the whole german master race thing made him uncomfortable because he you know wasnt a german. The stresser front fell apart when italy invaded abyssinia nowadays called ethiopia. Which was conquered by 1937 mussolini also sent volunteers to fight in the spanish civil war and in this conflict.
In the previous hitler had given italy germany support and relations between the two countries improved mussolini. Now felt that britain and france his time had come and gone and that europe would now revolve around the rome. Berlin.
Axis. Hence. Where the axis powers get their name italy in germany continued their united front over the coming years in 1938.
Italy. Sided with germany over the annexation of austria. And its later dismemberment of czechoslovakia germany sided with italy in 1939.
When it sent an ultimatum to king zog of albania to accept italian overlordship. He refused. But there was nothing that albania could do and so annexation in may of 1939.
Italy in germany signed the pact of steel and alliance in which both countries promised to help the other out in the event of war on september the 1st 1939 germany invaded poland and suddenly world war ii mussolini wouldnt bring italy into the war until mid 1940 after the fall of paris in the october of 1940. Mussolini. Came up with a brilliant idea.
Lets invade. Greece. This was to put it mildly a complete disaster and italian troops were trounced by the greeks.
Which forced the germans to come down and bail them out and over the next couple of years things got much worse the tide of the war turned against the axis powers. Italy. Lost its colonies in east africa.
Lost. Many troops aiding with the invasion of the soviet union. And after the battle of el alamein lost its libyan colony in mid 1943.
Sicily. Then italy proper was invaded shortly after this news september 1943. Mussolini was deposed and arrested germany then occupied the north of italy and set up a puppet state.
The italian social republic. Which was led by mussolini because he managed to escape the rest of italy under victor emmanuel. The third join the allies and declared war on germany.
The italian social republic was plagued by issues of partisans italians. Who resisted mussolinis rule. And they did a great deal of damage to its war effort by april 1945.
The front lines look like this and on the 25th of that month. The republic collapsed two days later mussolini was captured by partisans and shot the next day the war and fascist italy was over in the aftermath of fascist italy not much changed the same liberals and conservatives who had been given power by mussolini retained. It after the war of course.
Italy. Did see a return to democracy and in 1946 held a referendum on the monarchies existence victor emmanuel had abdicated on behalf of his son umberto ii to make the monarchy more appealing. But the italian people voted to abolish the monarchy in 1946 and thus the republic of italy was born i hope you enjoyed this episode and thank you for watching and a special thanks to winston k word.
James bissonnette ozark a flash adam harvey henry raeburn robin im sorry if i mispronounced that thomas gastrich and skye chappell. If youd like to learn more about fascist italy mussolini. There are some book recommendations in the description below .
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